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The william

the william

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Last ranked 88 in France. Last ranked 54 in Ireland. Last ranked in Italy. Last ranked in Netherlands. Last ranked 4 in New Zealand. Last ranked 50 in Northern Ireland.

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Last ranked 3 in m in f United States. It is sometimes abbreviated "Wm. A common Irish form is Liam. William comes ultimately from the given name Wilhelm cf.

In fact, the form William is from the Old Norman form Williame , because the English language should have retained helm.

This development can be followed in the different versions of the name in the Wace 's Roman de Rou. The spelling and phonetics Wi- [wi] is a characteristic trait of the Northern French dialects, but the pronunciation changed in Norman from [wi] to [vi] in the 12th century cf.

The Modern French spelling is Guillaume. The first well-known carrier of the name was Charlemagne 's cousin William of Gellone , a.

This William is immortalized in the Chanson de Guillaume and his esteem may account for the name's subsequent popularity among European nobility.

According to Dutch legend, as recorded by Verstegan — , William is originally derived from the Germanic name Gildhelm, meaning "golden helmet" and dates to Roman times.

The name was later adapted as the more well known forms of "Wilhelm", and "Guillaume". Verstegen states that Gildhelm was a title of bravery awarded to a German for killing Roman soldiers in battle.

The honored soldier was lifted on a shield and a golden helmet of a dead Roman soldier was placed upon his head, and the soldier was honored with the title "Gildhelm", or "golden helmet".

With the French the title was Guildhaume, and Since Guillaume. Latin Guielmus [6] [7] "Helm" could also refer to the golden diadem or crown of a king as was common in the later days of the Roman empire.

The name Wilkin is also of medieval origin taken from the shortened version of William Will with the suffix "kin" added. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see William disambiguation.

But after he was killed in February at the Battle of Cassel , Robert became count. He was opposed to King William's power on the continent, thus the Battle of Cassel upset the balance of power in northern France in addition to costing William an important supporter.

In William defeated the last rebellion of the north. Earl Edwin was betrayed by his own men and killed, while William built a causeway to subdue the Isle of Ely, where Hereward the Wake and Morcar were hiding.

Hereward escaped, but Morcar was captured, deprived of his earldom, and imprisoned. In William invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm, who had recently invaded the north of England.

William and Malcolm agreed to peace by signing the Treaty of Abernethy , and Malcolm probably gave up his son Duncan as a hostage for the peace.

With a swift campaign, William seized Le Mans from Fulk's forces, completing the campaign by 30 March Robert also married his half-sister Bertha to the king of France, Philip I , who was opposed to Norman power.

William returned to England to release his army from service in but quickly returned to Normandy, where he spent all of The French king, seeking a focus for those opposed to William's power, then proposed that Edgar be given the castle of Montreuil-sur-Mer on the Channel, which would have given Edgar a strategic advantage against William.

The exact reason for the rebellion is unclear, but it was launched at the wedding of Ralph to a relative of Roger, held at Exning in Suffolk.

Another earl, Waltheof, although one of William's favourites, was also involved, and there were some Breton lords who were ready to rebel in support of Ralph and Roger.

Ralph also requested Danish aid. William remained in Normandy while his men in England subdued the revolt. Ralph eventually left Norwich in the control of his wife and left England, finally ending up in Brittany.

Norwich was besieged and surrendered, with the garrison allowed to go to Brittany. Meanwhile, the Danish king's brother, Cnut , had finally arrived in England with a fleet of ships, but he was too late as Norwich had already surrendered.

The Danes then raided along the coast before returning home. He celebrated Christmas at Winchester and dealt with the aftermath of the rebellion.

Before this, William had returned to the continent, where Ralph had continued the rebellion from Brittany. Earl Ralph had secured control of the castle at Dol , and in September William advanced into Brittany and laid siege to the castle.

King Philip of France later relieved the siege and defeated William at Dol , forcing him to retreat back to Normandy. Although this was William's first defeat in battle, it did little to change things.

An Angevin attack on Maine was defeated in late or , with Count Fulk le Rechin wounded in the unsuccessful attack. Before he became a monk, Simon handed his county of the Vexin over to King Philip.

The Vexin was a buffer state between Normandy and the lands of the French king, and Simon had been a supporter of William.

In late or early trouble began between William and his eldest son, Robert. Although Orderic Vitalis describes it as starting with a quarrel between Robert and his two younger brothers, William and Henry , including a story that the quarrel was started when William and Henry threw water at Robert, it is much more likely that Robert was feeling powerless.

Orderic relates that he had previously demanded control of Maine and Normandy and had been rebuffed. The trouble in or resulted in Robert leaving Normandy accompanied by a band of young men, many of them the sons of William's supporters.

This band of young men went to the castle at Remalard , where they proceeded to raid into Normandy. The raiders were supported by many of William's continental enemies.

William then laid siege to Gerberoi in January After three weeks, the besieged forces sallied from the castle and managed to take the besiegers by surprise.

William was unhorsed by Robert and was only saved from death by an Englishman, Toki son of Wigod, who was himself killed. By 12 April , William and Robert had reached an accommodation, with William once more affirming that Robert would receive Normandy when he died.

Word of William's defeat at Gerberoi stirred up difficulties in northern England. The lack of Norman response appears to have caused the Northumbrians to grow restive, and in the spring of they rebelled against the rule of Walcher , the Bishop of Durham and Earl of Northumbria.

The bishop was killed on 14 May , and William dispatched his half-brother Odo to deal with the rebellion.

Robert raided into Lothian and forced Malcolm to agree to terms, building a fortification at Newcastle-on-Tyne while returning to England.

A papal embassy arrived in England during this period, asking that William do fealty for England to the papacy, a request that William rejected.

William's biographer David Bates argues that the former explanation is more likely, explaining that the balance of power had recently shifted in Wales and that William would have wished to take advantage of the changed circumstances to extend Norman power.

By the end of , William was back on the continent, dealing with disturbances in Maine. Although he led an expedition into Maine, the result was instead a negotiated settlement arranged by a papal legate.

Sources for William's actions between and are meagre. According to the historian David Bates, this probably means that little happened of note, and that because William was on the continent, there was nothing for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to record.

The exact reasons are unclear, as no contemporary author recorded what caused the quarrel between the half-brothers. Orderic Vitalis later recorded that Odo had aspirations to become pope.

Orderic also related that Odo had attempted to persuade some of William's vassals to join Odo on an invasion of southern Italy.

This would have been considered tampering with the king's authority over his vassals, which William would not have tolerated.

Although Odo remained in confinement for the rest of William's reign, his lands were not confiscated. More difficulties struck in , when William's eldest son Robert rebelled once more with support from the French king.

A further blow was the death of Matilda, William's wife, on 2 November William was always described as close to his wife, and her death would have added to his problems.

Maine continued to be difficult, with a rebellion by Hubert de Beaumont-au-Maine , probably in Hubert was besieged in his castle at Sainte-Suzanne by William's forces for at least two years, but he eventually made his peace with the king and was restored to favour.

Although English and Norman forces remained on alert throughout and into , the invasion threat was ended by Cnut's death in July These fortifications allowed Normans to retreat into safety when threatened with rebellion and allowed garrisons to be protected while they occupied the countryside.

The early castles were simple earth and timber constructions, later replaced with stone structures. At first, most of the newly settled Normans kept household knights and did not settle their retainers with fiefs of their own, but gradually these household knights came to be granted lands of their own, a process known as subinfeudation.

William also required his newly created magnates to contribute fixed quotas of knights towards not only military campaigns but also castle garrisons.

This method of organising the military forces was a departure from the pre-Conquest English practice of basing military service on territorial units such as the hide.

By William's death, after weathering a series of rebellions, most of the native Anglo-Saxon aristocracy had been replaced by Norman and other continental magnates.

Not all of the Normans who accompanied William in the initial conquest acquired large amounts of land in England.

Some appear to have been reluctant to take up lands in a kingdom that did not always appear pacified. Although some of the newly rich Normans in England came from William's close family or from the upper Norman nobility, others were from relatively humble backgrounds.

The medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury says that the king also seized and depopulated many miles of land 36 parishes , turning it into the royal New Forest region to support his enthusiastic enjoyment of hunting.

Modern historians have come to the conclusion that the New Forest depopulation was greatly exaggerated. Most of the lands of the New Forest are poor agricultural lands, and archaeological and geographic studies have shown that the New Forest was likely sparsely settled when it was turned into a royal forest.

After , William did not attempt to integrate his separate domains into one unified realm with one set of laws.

His seal from after , of which six impressions still survive, was made for him after he conquered England and stressed his role as king, while separately mentioning his role as Duke.

The administrative machinery of Normandy, England, and Maine continued to exist separate from the other lands, with each one retaining its own forms.

For example, England continued the use of writs , which were not known on the continent. Also, the charters and documents produced for the government in Normandy differed in formulas from those produced in England.

William took over an English government that was more complex than the Norman system. England was divided into shires or counties, which were further divided into either hundreds or wapentakes.

Each shire was administered by a royal official called a sheriff, who roughly had the same status as a Norman viscount. A sheriff was responsible for royal justice and collecting royal revenue.

He crossed back and forth between the continent and England at least 19 times between and his death. William spent most of his time in England between the Battle of Hastings and , and after that, he spent the majority of his time in Normandy.

William also appointed deputies who could make decisions while he was absent, especially if the absence was expected to be lengthy.

Sometimes deputies were appointed to deal with specific issues. William continued the collection of danegeld, a land tax.

This was an advantage for William, as it was the only universal tax collected by western European rulers during this period. It was an annual tax based on the value of landholdings, and it could be collected at differing rates.

Most years saw the rate of two shillings per hide, but in crises, it could be increased to as much as six shillings per hide. English coins were generally of high silver content, with high artistic standards, and were required to be re-minted every three years.

Norman coins had a much lower silver content, were often of poor artistic quality, and were rarely re-minted. Also, in England, no other coinage was allowed, while on the continent other coinage was considered legal tender.

Nor is there evidence that many English pennies were circulating in Normandy, which shows little attempt to integrate the monetary systems of England and Normandy.

Besides taxation, William's large landholdings throughout England strengthened his rule. As King Edward's heir, he controlled all of the former royal lands.

He also retained control of much of the lands of Harold and his family, which made the king the largest secular landowner in England by a wide margin.

At Christmas , William ordered the compilation of a survey of the landholdings held by himself and by his vassals throughout his kingdom, organised by counties.

It resulted in a work now known as the Domesday Book. The listing for each county gives the holdings of each landholder, grouped by owners.

The listings describe the holding, who owned the land before the Conquest, its value, what the tax assessment was, and usually the number of peasants, ploughs, and any other resources the holding had.

Towns were listed separately. All the English counties south of the River Tees and River Ribble are included, and the whole work seems to have been mostly completed by 1 August , when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that William received the results and that all the chief magnates swore the Salisbury Oath , a renewal of their oaths of allegiance.

William left England towards the end of Following his arrival back on the continent he married his daughter Constance to Alan Fergant , the Duke of Brittany, in furtherance of his policy of seeking allies against the French kings.

William's son Robert, still allied with the French king, appears to have been active in stirring up trouble, enough so that William led an expedition against the French Vexin in July While seizing Mantes , William either fell ill or was injured by the pommel of his saddle.

Orderic Vitalis preserves a lengthy account, complete with speeches made by many of the principals, but this is likely more of an account of how a king should die than of what actually happened.

The other, the De Obitu Willelmi , or On the Death of William , has been shown to be a copy of two 9th-century accounts with names changed.

William left Normandy to Robert, and the custody of England was given to William's second surviving son, also called William, on the assumption that he would become king.

The youngest son, Henry, received money. After entrusting England to his second son, the elder William sent the younger William back to England on 7 or 8 September, bearing a letter to Lanfranc ordering the archbishop to aid the new king.

Other bequests included gifts to the Church and money to be distributed to the poor. William also ordered that all of his prisoners be released, including his half-brother Odo.

Disorder followed William's death; everyone who had been at his deathbed left the body at Rouen and hurried off to attend to their own affairs.

Eventually, the clergy of Rouen arranged to have the body sent to Caen, where William had desired to be buried in his foundation of the Abbaye-aux-Hommes.

The funeral, attended by the bishops and abbots of Normandy as well as his son Henry, was disturbed by the assertion of a citizen of Caen who alleged that his family had been illegally despoiled of the land on which the church was built.

After hurried consultations, the allegation was shown to be true, and the man was compensated. A further indignity occurred when the corpse was lowered into the tomb.

The corpse was too large for the space, and when attendants forced the body into the tomb it burst, spreading a disgusting odour throughout the church.

William's grave is currently marked by a marble slab with a Latin inscription dating from the early 19th century. The tomb has been disturbed several times since , the first time in when the grave was opened on orders from the papacy.

The intact body was restored to the tomb at that time, but in , during the French Wars of Religion , the grave was reopened and the bones scattered and lost, with the exception of one thigh bone.

This lone relic was reburied in with a new marker, which was replaced years later with a more elaborate monument.

This tomb was again destroyed during the French Revolution but was eventually replaced with the current marker. Last ranked in Italy. Last ranked in Netherlands.

Last ranked 4 in New Zealand. Last ranked 50 in Northern Ireland. Last ranked 3 in Norway. Last ranked 74 in Portugal. Last ranked 33 in Scotland.

The honored soldier was lifted on a shield and a golden helmet of a dead Roman soldier was placed upon his head, and the soldier was honored with the title "Gildhelm", or "golden helmet".

With the French the title was Guildhaume, and Since Guillaume. Latin Guielmus [6] [7] "Helm" could also refer to the golden diadem or crown of a king as was common in the later days of the Roman empire.

The name Wilkin is also of medieval origin taken from the shortened version of William Will with the suffix "kin" added.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see William disambiguation. For other uses, see WM disambiguation. William the Conqueror The name William became very popular in the English language after the Norman conquest of England in by William the Conqueror.

This article is missing information about the etymology of "Bill". Please expand the article to include this information.

Further details may exist on the talk page. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.

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